After initiating in 2018 a Beekeeping Pilot, Naturevolution start a reforestation project near the villages of Makay: village forests. But we could start this project without you explain this autumn how it fits in both a specific local context and in a worrying global context. Through 6 items we take stock of the current state of deforestation, commitments and actions initiated by the different governments, reforestation initiatives in terms especially in Madagascar and finally the possible actions to your scale to fight against deforestation . An entire program !
Deforestation in Madagascar
Madagascar has experienced in 60 years a major loss and fragmentation of forests, with a decrease of nearly 44% of its forest cover (source : Vieilledent et al. 2018). More worryingly, this deforestation is rapidly accelerating.
According to Global Forest Watch, in 2017, Madagascar is the fourth country in terms of deforestation class with 510 000 hectares destroyed in one yearOr the loss of 3.8% of forests in Madagascar (48.5 times the area of Paris!).
If massif Makay
Makay massif The forests cover 15,000 hectares and are home to species that are unique. Bush fires triggered on the perimeter of the massive spread to the deepest canyons, and poaching (animal or vegetable) comes affect endangered species. So since 2001, the New Protected Area of Makay lost 577 hectares of forest cover (Analysis performed on Global Forest Watch).
Madagascar is known as one of the 35 biodiversity hotspots in the world and a global priority in terms of nature conservation. The present island high biodiversity but faces strong anthropogenic pressures. Among the last natural refuges Malagasy still little explored and exploited, the Makay massif is a singular case. We are listed 1406 animals and plants in recent years, including 90 new to science. Makay attractions include 283 endangered species, 5 "in critical danger of extinction".
The origin of forest fires the Makay
These lights can be of different origin. Sébastien Bihan, Naturevolution trainee in 2017, proposes a description of these lights in his Ethnographic Report on populations is Makay :
Bushfires - The bushfires are generally made on grazing land. The owners of zebu set fire to brush their grazing lands to the ash resulting provide fertile soil in which can push the green shoots which zebu feed afterwards. These fires usually occur between the months of November and December at the beginning of the rainy season. The first rains will allow seedlings to emerge.
Cleaning lights - Crop fires can be cleaning fires. The fire is thus lit around the fields to burn the invasive vegetation and to keep away the beasts and predators. Firewalls are then used (usually a weeded area) but only around the field.
The fat – Il arrive qu’un cultivateur laisse pousser des friches sur une rizière qu’il n’utilise plus pour des raisons qui peuvent être diverses : par exemple parce qu’elle ne recevait plus assez d’eau (de pluie ou d’irrigation), ou bien parce que son propriétaire avait peur de voir ses plantations détruites par les criquets, ou plus simplement parce qu’il n’en avait pas besoin. S’il décide d’utiliser à nouveau cette parcelle en friche, ou qu’il la donne ou la vend à quelqu’un qui souhaite l’utiliser, ils mettront le feu à la parcelle pour la défricher tout en la fertilisant grâce aux cendres.
Les feux de forêt – Dans d’autres cas, le feu est utilisé sur une zone qui était occupée par de la forêt. Le cultivateur qui cherche à cultiver cette zone va d’abord couper les arbres puis attendre qu’ils sèchent, après quoi il y met le feu. Contrairement au tavy qui défriche des parcelles déjà créées mais laissées à l’abandon, cette technique de culture sur brûlis défriche elle la forêt. Les cendres sont plus importantes, et la terre provisoirement plus fertile, ce qui permet d’avoir de bons rendements pendant les deux premières années de culture et de faire d’autres cultures que du riz, notamment la culture de maïs sur brûlis, très rémunératrice à court-terme et génératrice de revenus que d’autres filières alternatives et plus durables (apiculture, tourisme) ne pourraient atteindre .
However after the first two or three years, the yield drops sharply (it would be halved every year approximately), until the earth becomes too poor for them to crop.
The fire Dahalo - Fires are sometimes triggered directly inside the massif the Dahalo (Zebu thieves) who will use this method to create a passage stolen herd and thus hide inside the mountains.
Pyromanie - The destruction of the forest by fire sometimes uses no rational or ancestral tradition, it is an act of arson.
The use of fire in agriculture is well known in Madagascar. So it is with farmers and ranchers need to work to try to reduce them. This is what we offer through reforestation project around the villagesWhich joins the development of beekeepingOur work onecotourism and our educational activities.
Farmers are often seen as enemies of forests. They may yet be the fastest and easiest to increase tree cover and absorb carbon in the soil.
Initial funding to the tune of € 10,000 was obtained from MaltemEnabling the launch of Village Forestry Project. Maltem is an ecosystem of specialized consulting companies in the digital transformation and sustainable innovation, and a partner of Naturevolution since 2016.
The entire series of articles
- (1/6) Deforestation: an inventory in 2019
- (2/6) Deforestation: the timetable (in) government action?
- (3/6) Reforestation: Opportunities and Limitations
- (4/6) How to act against deforestation?
- (5/6) Deforestation in Madagascar and the massive Makay
- (6/6) Why protect forests Makay?
An article proposed by Gaëtan Deltour and Yann Bigant